A Research Report on the Training System of Civil Servant in China2006
Table des matières
A Research Report on China’s System of Civil Servant Training is one of the achievements of the international cooperative subject— A Research on Public Administration Education. According to the fundamental format and contents of The Questionnaire of Public Administration Education devlopped by IRG, this result is achieved by means of collecting, classifying and explaining the data coming from the 24 class-times in 7 provincial-level and municipal-level administration schools and training centers directly affiliated to the Ministry of Personnel. In order to make the system clear, some relevant materials that are not covered in the questionnaire are supplemented in this report.
In China, public administration education is mainly divided into two kinds. One kind is formal schooling, which is chiefly undertaken by ordinary colleges and universities. Like other specialized formal schooling, it recruits students through the annual college entrance examination. Students look for jobs by themselves after graduation. If they want to work in public office, they have to take the special examinations for enrolling civil servants. Only those who pass the examinations will be admitted. The other kind is the short-term professional training for current public servants, which can be categorized as « vocational education » (that normally does not offer diplomas or degrees). It is implemented in this way: the Party and government bodies dispatch the trainees, and the Party schools and administration schools conduct the training programs. Party schools and administration schools at various levels (in many provinces and cities the two schools are combined into one) are leading training bases for civil servant training. In view of this characteristic of China, we were determined to focus the research on China’s “Public Administration Education” on the civil servant training system when we had this research project authorized. For this reason, we think it necessary to briefly summarize the evolutionary process of China’ official personnel system and its training system.
The evolutionary process of China’s official personnel system falls into three phases. The establishment of civil servant system was initiated in 1990s.
1. The Phase of Party and Government Official System (1949 1993)
For quite a long time after the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, instead of setting up the civil servant system as other countries generally did, China adopted a nationwide official personnel system of party and government integration, which was based on carrying forward the fine traditions of the revolutionary war and learning the experiences of personnel administration from the former Soviet Union. This kind of system matched the traditional planned economy system and had its character of comparatively good managerial ability, but it also showed its shortcomings, such as, legal standard being replaced by political standard and state administrative power and administrator’s power being exercised quite at will, thus, it is rich in the color of “rule of man”.
2. The Early Trial Phrase of the Civil Servant System (1993 2005)
Since the end of 1970s, China has entered the period of reform and opening-up, and has begun to reform its administrative personnel system. In October 1987, in the report at the 13th National Congress of the C.P.C., it is pointed out that “The focal point of the reform of the administrative personnel system at present is to establish the state civil servant system, to enact laws, to lay down rules and to manage scientifically by law the government administrative staff who exercise state power and perform official duty.” In March 1988, it was further proposed at the 1st session of the National People’s Congress that the state civil servant system should be established as quickly as possible and be put in practice gradually. On August 14 1993, the State Council promulgated “The Provisional Regulations of Public Functionary”. This is China’s own national system of public service, which has drawn references from the systems of other countries and integrated them with China’s socialist political structure. This provisional ordinance took effect on October 1 1993, and by the beginning of the 21st century, the national system of public servant had gradually developed into a rather complete administrative system.
3. The Legal System of Civil Servant (since 2005)
On April 27 2005, the 15th session of the 10th N.P.C, reviewed and passed The Civil Servant Law of the People’s Republic of China, which come into force on January 1 2006. The new law is a summary of the scores of years’ experiences of the cadre personnel management of the party and government, especially the experiences since the implementation of “The Provisional Regulations of Public Functionary”. In the course of its constitution, references of salutary practices of other countries’ personnel management were drawn. The enactment of the new law marked the establishment of China’s elementary system of civil servant management as well as the approach of the new development stage.
4. The Foundation of Training Institutions—Administration Schools
In 1990s, with the establishment of the civil servant system, the central government and local governments at all levels began to set up administration schools. China National School of Administration was established in 1994 and preparations for its establishment were started earlier in 1988. It is a ministerial level government institution directly under the State Council, whose purpose is to train senior and mid-level officials, high-level administrators and policy-researcher, to provide counsel in policy in government administration, and to carry on researches on theory of public administration and other relative fields. At the same time, all provinces set up their administration schools one after another, which serve as the key bases for civil servant training. Presently, most cities and counties have set up their own administration schools. The administration schools at various levels were established in three ways. The first way was to set up new independent administration schools, such as the National School of Administration and Gansu Administration School, the number of which is quite small. The second was to combine administration schools with Party schools—the two schools share the same structure and simultaneously undertake the tasks of training Party cadres and government officials. This is the predominant kind of administration schools which has a large number. Examples of this kind are Tianjin Administration School and Yun Nan Administration School. The third was to combine the administration schools with some other existing training institutions to form a new one, for example, to combine with institutes of economic management. This kind of school trains not only civil servants but also administrators of other types. Shaanxi Administration School is an example of this kind.
I. The Administrative System of Chinese Civil Servant Training
China’s management system of civil servant training mainly consists of the leading body, the enforcement body and the cooperative institutions.
1. The Leading Body of Civil Servant Training
The Leading Body of the Training System China’s civil servant training is under the unified leadership of the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee, in the charge of the relative departments of the Central Committee and state organ with individual responsibility, and under the level-to-level administration of the Central Committee and local government. It is a system that relies mainly on “horizontal training” while “vertical training” and “horizontal training” are mutually complementary. “Horizontal training” here refers to the training organized separately by Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and local Party committees at various levels. It embodies the “level-to-level” administration relationship. “Vertical training” mainly means the training organized by ministries, commissions and professional bureaus of the state and local government. The Organization Department of Yun Nan Provincial Party Committee, the Organization Department of Shaanxi Provincial Party Committee, the Organization Department of Gansu Provincial Party Committee, the Organization Department of Fujian Provincial Party Committee, the Organization Department of Tianjin (a municipality directly under the Central Government) municipal Party Committee, and the Organization Department of Xi’an municipal Party Committee included in the questionnaire are, as the organization departments of their own provinces and municipalities, respectively in charge of the civil servant training work of their regions. The organization department releases training programs, selects and transfers trainees, and directs the training institutions to implement the training tasks. The Pre-service Training Class of the Nationwide Province-level Heads of the Bureaus of Postal Administration, in which the trainees were selected and sent by their responsible authority—the State Bureau of Postal Administration(a state industrial bureau), was a kind of “vertical training”. In addition, the training system of “work and individual responsibility” also involves other departments beyond the organization departments (personnel) at various levels.
2. Performing Organizations of Civil Servant Training
Civil servant training centers are the organizations which directly take on the work of training civil servants. In China, the following schools are the main ones in training civil servants. They are Party schools at all levels, administration schools and cadre schools ( There are three cadre schools established by the Organization Department of CPC Central Committee — China Executive Leadership Academy Pudong, Shanghai, China Executive Leadership Academy Yan’an, China Executive Leadership Academy Jinggangshan). In addition, institutions of higher learning, scientific research institutes, training centers for department and trade cadres also take part in the work of civil servant training.
The training centers involved in the research report include those at the central-level (e.g. China Training Center of Senior Civil Servants under the direct control of Ministry of Personnel ), and the ones at provincial level or at the level of municipality directly under the Central Government, such as Shaanxi Administration School, Yunnan Administration School, Fujian Administration School, Gansu Administration School, Tianjing Administration School, and the institute at the level of provincial capital, e.g. Xi’an Administration School. All the training organizations at all levels, while competing with one another, often cooperate with each other, so the quality and effect of the civil servant training can be guaranteed.
3. Co-operation with Other Organizations in civil servant training
There are two ways of co-operation in civil servant training — One is the operation between the training centers themselves, the other one is between the training centers and the non-training organizations. The operation between the training centers has been mentioned above. To cooperate with non-training organizations means during the training the training centers seek assistance from these organizations, mainly for field work, on-the-spot teaching and practice for the training course.
II. The State of Target of Civil Servant Training in China
As Section 4, Article 13 of Civil Servant Law of the People’s Republic of China states, a civil servant may enjoy the right of participating in training. Generally speaking, the civil servant trainings are open to all the civil servants. The Program for Civil Servant Training 2001-2005 stipulates that all the civil servants will be trained in rotation within five years so that every civil servant can attend an off-job training which averages at least 12 days per year.
According to the research report, the trainees show the following characteristics.
1. About the Trainees’ Posts and Ranks
More than two thirds of the trainees are the Party and government leading cadres at or above the county level. This indicates that the Party organization has always attached importance to the training of civil servants at this level. This phenomenon has something to do with the fact that most academies and schools involved in the research report are organizations at the provincial level. According to the relevant regulations on the civil servants’ posts and ranks, cadres at the county level generally should be trained in organizations at the provincial level.
2. About the Trainees’ Age
Most trainees are leading cadres, so their average age is quite high. In the training class held by China Training Center of Senior Civil Servants, the 65 trainees from 31 provinces of China were the postmasters at the provincial level. Their average age was 55. In the training classes organized in Shaanxi for the civil servants who had assumed or were to assume their posts in provincial offices, the trainees were the civil servants at the county level working in departments and bureaus of provincial offices, including the civil servants who had been promoted to leading posts and those who were not leading cadres. The average age of them was about 45. The trainees in Class One of advanced training organized in Tianjin City were the leading cadres of offices of ministries and commissions, districts, counties and cities. Their average age was 42.
3. About the Trainees’ Sex Ratio
As a whole, there are more men trainees than women ones. The maximum ratio of women trainees is about 25% of the total, and it can be as low as a few percent. For example, women trainees, in the training class for civil servants at the county level in Tianjin mentioned above, accounted for 20% of the total; the ratio of women trainees was only 4.6% in the training class for the postmasters.
4. About the Trainees’ Educational Levels
Generally, the trainees have received academic certificates at or above junior college level. Xi’an Administration School Started to offer the training courses for young and middle-aged cadres in 1989, and 1198 people have been trained ever since. The trainees were primarily the civil servants at or above the county level from government offices, institutions, state-owned enterprises and mass organizations. 90% of them have a bachelor’s or higher degree. Besides, 5% of them have a master’s degree.
The trainees’ educational levels are different in different classes. For example, in the training class for newly-employed civil servants who assume their posts for the first time, the trainees are young with a higher education level. In the recent five years, 497 people have been trained in the training classes held by Tianjin Administration Institute for civil servants who assume their posts for the first time. The trainees’ average age is 26. Among them, women account for 25%. All of them have a bachelor’s or higher degree. In the training class in rotation for new deputy county chiefs, new deputy mayors and new deputy district chiefs, the number of the trainees has reached 351in the recent five years, and their average age is 38.
III．The Category System of Chinese Civil Servant Training
According to the form of investigation and research, the categories in training Chinese civil servant can be divided into many ways:
1. Categories divided by law
Chinese civil servants have five training categories stipulated in the sixtieth rule in the Law of Civil Servant.
(1) Primary training: Primary training means having the training to the servants who are newly employed but not hold the post. Provincial civil servants have their primary training in provincial administration school. From 2002 to 2006, there were primary training classes 49 times offered by Shaanxi, Fujian, Yunnan and Tianjing Administration schools, and altogether 5163 civil servants accepted the training.
(2) In-service training: In-service training is for the civil servants at their posts, who will be promoted to a certain leading position. Provincial administration schools mainly undertakes the job of training those who will be promoted to the leadership of the government department and the bureau in the county. In 2002—2006, there were 2703 people who accepted such training in Fujian, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Gansu and Tianjing Administration Schools in 60 terms.
(3) Training for special business: Such training is for the civil servants who need some specialized knowledge and technology .The contents of the training are based on the professional and business demands of the government, institution and enterprises. It lays particular emphasis on training for the section normative knowledge and the post technology. In 2002-2006, there were 169 terms held in Shaanxi, Tianjing, Gansu, Fujian and Yunnan, and 10762 civil servants accepted such training.
(4) Training for renewing knowledge: The training is the reeducation and retraining which aims at improving, replenishing and broadening certain knowledge. It mainly makes them to learn about the important information in society (including the new policies, laws and theories), to master the new technology in work, the working methods and improving one’s ability of self-study.
(5) Training for reserving leader: The object of the training is usually the young carders. Take Xian Administration College for example, from 1989, they began to set up the training class for the middle-aged and young reserving leaders. There were altogether 1198 people who accepted the training in twenty nine terms, among whom, many excellent carders are now on different leading positions.
2. Categories divided by official rank
The training organs in different scales have their corresponding job arrangement of the civil servants in the light of the system of “classifying management”. So the classes are classified by the post levels, such as provincial training class, municipal (or department) training class, county training class and section training class.（These training organs in this research report are all the ones at or under provincial level, so there is no provincial classes involved in the training mentioned above.)
3. Divided by training contents
Each training organs will have courses on some certain subjects, such as the lecture on law topic, on economy, on environmental protection, on construction of the new countryside and the construction of the party, etc.
4. Divided by the nature of work
This mainly refers to the training divided by the nature of the work of which the civil servants are engaged in, such as the bureau of medicine supervision, personnel bureau, propaganda department, the bureau of postal management, the inquiry carders, the management of public human resource, the utility legal and the logistics office, etc.
5. Divided by the training time
The length of schooling of the training classes is different from each other according to the types of training classes, which is flexible. The period of primary training class is 15 days; for service training, it’s one month, and the others, one and a half months, two months, etc., and the period of the seminar is five days at most. Accordingly, there are classes of the long period and the short one in each training institute，and the one for more than one month is called the long class , the one for one month or less is called the short class.
To sum up the above, each of the administration colleges forms a classifying structure on the training categories and has basically set up a training system for the demands of government work and the construction of the civil servant, which has a reasonable structure, clear arrangement and combination of long and short period.
IV. The Basic Idea of Chinese Civil Servant Training
The basic idea of training Chinese civil servant can be summarized as the following: the aim is to strengthen the consciousness of serving the people heart and soul and improve the ability of ruling party; its main line is to renew the concept of thinking; its stress is to improve one’s quality, insisting on putting the theory into practice, creating the training contents, improving the training methods, integrating the training resources, optimizing the training team and continuing to improve the practical results. From the investigation, the idea of training is influenced mainly by the following factors.
1. The basic demand of political aim
Training the Chinese civil servant is dominated by the socialist ideology and from beginning to end we attach the primary importance to the person who is dependable in politics during the construction of the civil servant. It means strengthening the leadership of the party, insisting on the socialist ideology and improving the ability of completing political task are regarded as the basic purpose in training the civil servant. We must center on and obey this political aim either on deciding the courses or on dividing the class hour.
2. Improvement of the ability of holding the reins of government
Improving the ability of ruling the party is the main purpose in training the Chinese civil servant. So, in each different training, no matter on deciding the courses or the methods, we focus continuously on improving the civil servants’ ability of scientifically judging the situation, of mastering the market-directed economy, of dealing with complicated situation, of administering by law and the ability of assuming all responsibility.
3. The renewal of the party’s line and policy
The primary importance in training the civil servant is the renew of the development line in economy of the party and the country, enable them to apply to the demands of the new situation and tasks. These are also the successful experience gained by the party and the government in pledging to fulfill the strategic tasks in each stage. Each time the Party’s and the government’s line and policy are renewed, we concentrate on studying them and train them overall. This decides to have the clear features of stage renewal in designing the contents of training. Meanwhile, in order to speed up the renewal of the idea in economy work, each of the administration college arranges the civil servants to study and check in hi-tech industry areas and the areas of economy developing well.
V. The Curriculum System of Chinese Civil Servant Training
The system of the courses in training the Chinese civil servant is composed of the following three patterns:
1. The composing patterns of course module
From the research form, it can be known that the various classes in all the administrative institutes generally conclude lecture course, discussing and exchange course, inspective and visiting course, essay practice course and experience course. The module combination “A＋B＋C＋D＋E” is relatively a complete curriculum pattern in all the institutes, and therefore can be called basic model. Generally speaking, in the five modules, the lecture course is the most important and the others are subsidiary.
2．The allocation pattern of curriculum contents
The allocation pattern of curriculum contents is mainly made according to the focal point of each public officer training. In each administration institute, in designing the curriculum contents of training, there are both generality, which we call basic course, and particularity, which we call specialty. Such pattern can be known as “basis＋specialty”.
The basic course can be generalized as the following groups: 1. course of political theory, such as the classical works of Marxism, the question of establishing and carrying out the scientific development outlook, the question of building a harmonious society and so on; 2. course of administrating according to law, such as the question of constructing a government of law, the question of administrative institutional reform, the question concerning the Civil Servant Law and civil servant system etc; 3. course of public administration, such as the question of the improvement of the government’ public administration level, the question of the government’s urgent administration, the question of the government’s function change and so forth; 4. course of economic and social development, such as the question of establishing and perfecting the socialist market economy, the question of regional economy and social development etc.
The special course is mainly designed according to the different requirements of civil servant in different groups and at different levels. That is to show specialty in training of different types and levels. For example, newly-appointed civil servant learn such courses as the position of governmental function, question of investigation and research, writing of official documents and so on; in-service public officers study such courses as methods and art of leadership, improvement of ability of public administration and the improvement of ability of making decision. And for the special business training, its contents is determined by the knowledge and skills needed by the civil servants in their special work. For instance, in the special training of social administration, such courses as administration of non-governmental organization, the governmental reform in global administration, and the method choice of social administration are offered; and course of governmental emergency management, and correct treatment of media are studied in the special training for emergency management of unexpected accident.
3．Arrangement of curriculum
Relating training basic combination pattern and arrangement pattern of courses contents, different type courses occupy different proportion in the whole lesson hours. Overall, lecture pattern occupies the largest proportion in the whole class hours. Through analyzing the research form, lesson hours and structure can be arranged: courses of lecture are 70%, courses of discussion and exchange are 10%, courses of investigation and visiting are 10%, courses of paper and writing are 5%, and courses of experience are 5%. The proportion of basic courses and special courses is 30% and 70%.
VI. Teachers’ Construction of Chinese Civil Servant Training
In view of the teacher-construction, the two aspects are introduced in accordance with the research form.
1. Source and Structure of teachers
(1)Source of full-time teachers
Administrative schools and Party schools at all levels and other training institutions have their own full-time teachers, who undertake main teaching tasks. Full-time teachers are employed on the basis of competitive selection from graduates of institutions of higher learning. Most of provinces in our country have carried out uniform examination system of employing for public institutions. At present, province-level and above administrative colleges and Party schools require employing the persons possessing master or doctor degree. Grass-roots administrative colleges and Party schools require bachelor degree and above.
(2)Source of part-time teachers
Source of part-time teachers is various and form of employing is flexible. The government official with high professional competence and expert or scholar from higher schools and scientific research institutions can be employed as part-time teachers. Another way is employing some government officials and leading cadres from Party committee give lectures to the trainees.
(3)Structure of teaching staff
From the structure of full-time and part-time teachers, full-time teachers occupy lager percentage in most of training organizations, and part-time teachers are less than 20% of teaching staff. Full-time trainers’ professional title is same as teachers’ in ordinary colleges and universities. It can be divided into professorship, associate professorship, lectureship and assistantship. Teachers’ professional title promoting has strike requirement and process. Statistics shows that teachers with master degree and above are 23.3% among all teachers in the province-level administrative colleges, 43% of which possess professorship.
2. Training and Improvement of Trainers
Chinese government attach great importance to trainers’ own training and improving and provide trainers with various ways to accept training.
(1) Institution for training trainers
Every-level administrative college is the lower-level’s training base for teachers. National administrative college is the highest level and most primary training base for trainers. National administrative college makes its own training plans every year. Quota of trainers to be trained is portioned out to every provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. And training is on schedule. National personnel department is in charge of teacher-training and makes training plan every year. The tasks of teacher-training are entrusted to some administrative colleges
(2) Training of specialties and courses
This kind of training is in order to improve and update the trainers’ professional knowledge and make the trainers familiar and understand the contents of related courses on their own profession. It has to make sure that the trainers can impart the updated knowledge and skill to the trainees. Some college sent their teachers to the government department to hold a temporary post to gain experience. Meanwhile, the trainers are encouraged to go down to the rural areas and factories to do some investigations and researches. The colleges will give encouragement and support to their teachers to study for a higher degree.
(3) Training of teaching method
The purposes of the training are making trainers master the lasted teaching methods. In the few past years, Chinese training organizations at all levels attach importance to learning international popular teaching method. Almost trainers have accepted this training of teaching method.
According to the political, economic and some new social problems, sponsor institution will raise the topic and define the content, and then invite some teachers from every-level administrative colleges to participate in the seminar. This seminar will facilitate academic exchange between the colleges and improve participants’ knowledge and theoretical level
(5) International training
Corporate and interchange with foreign training organizations and groups, such as inviting foreign scholars to China to give speeches, setting people to abroad to be accepted training and to be visiting scholars.
(6) Visiting and learning.
Organize trainers to visit some domestic and foreign training bases, government organizations, enterprises and institutions.
VII. The Teaching Method of Chinese Civil Servant Training
According to the research tables ( in Tianjin City, Gansu Province, Shaanxi Province, Xi’an City, Fujian Province, Yunnan Province and Public Administration School, Northwest University), and four interviews of the training methods for civil servants (by the Organization Department of CPC Central Committee, Tianjin Administration School, Xi’an Administration School, and Fujian Administration School ), the teaching methods of training civil servants in every part of the country can be divided into five categories.
1. Model of teaching
This is the most basic teaching method. Teachers organize and control the teaching process systematically to teach the students basic knowledge and basic skills. Topics include teachings or lectures, whose advantage is that teachers can play a leading role and the role of positive education; can be a professor of many students and the trainees in the unit time can obtain more information because of the effective transmission. Currently Tianjin Administration School, Shaanxi Administration School and Gansu Administration school also use the « double-speak » teaching model, that is, the two teachers combine to teach.
2. Model of Presenting Cases
This teaching method is to typify real examples of the actual work, which can enhance students’ ability to analyze and solve problems through their independent study and mutual discussion. Participants are asked to prepare the cases based on their actual work, considering the preparation of cases as the process of reviewing and exchanging experiences and conducting the rational thinking. This method can present the personality and typical, fully representing the ability to analyze and solve practical problems.
3. Model of Studying
This method emphasizes the studying of issues throughout the entire process of teaching, that is, students mainly study the problem supplemented by teachers through interactive teaching process. Training will focus on the students’ playing the main role to raise their abilities of learning independently, practicing and innovating. Teachers pay more attention to « study » and manifest the latest research in the training, so as to improve the scientific content of the lectures. At the same time, teachers will set aside a certain amount of time to organize the students to discuss the hot and difficult and key issues, carrying out interactive activities by asking and answering questions, thus, focusing on the research, interactivity and target. The concrete teaching methods include a. students’ forum; b. Special topic study; c. being on study tour; d. Subject to deliberations.
4. Model of Simulating (Role-Play)
This method refers to simulate specific situations to assess and predict the ability and potentiality of the trainees by observing and assessing their behaviors. The teaching process includes: designing simulation teaching programs; preparing simulation ground and equipments; announcing simulation issues; simulating the implementation of exercises and verified results; evaluating lecturers and compiling simulated reports, etc. Teaching is implemented through role-play, the use of teaching aids and the computer-aided system.
5. Model of Experiencing
Such training can strengthen awareness and increase the ability through the exercises of live ammunition, known as « Adult Education in training ». This method mobilizes the initiative of trainees and promotes the students to learn and understand in practice so that the education of the Administrative School can transfer from the quality-oriented education to the quality and capacity-oriented education. The inner motivation and potentiality of students are excited in training to improve the ability of civil servants effectively.
VIII. The assessment of Chinese civil servant training and the change of their posts
The training process of Administration College mainly includes two evaluation methods:
1. Training Evaluation Method
In accordance with the « Regulations on the Work of cadre education and training” (Trial), the evaluation of the China civil servants is carried out by the cadres’ training institution. The main ways of assessment are:
(1) The Assessment of Learning Attitude: the students are mainly examined about their attending full-time training, abiding by the full-time training systems and disciplines strictly. The items of assessment include the rate of attending classed, the seminar initiative and the correctness of views.
(2) Study Results. The training students are examined about their understanding and mastering of the knowledge and the examination paper is employed usually. They are examined to use what they have learned to solve practical problems. The main way is to write theses or investigation reports. The training institutions offer thesis topics and the students can also choose topics themselves. Guided by teachers, the theses are exhibited, lectured, argued and evaluated, etc. Finally, the scores of their theses are given.
2. Identification of Training Organizations
At the end of the training, the institution presents the practical assessment identification for every trainee’s performance. The identification and assessment of students in school in the form of « registration form for the training of cadres assessment » become the feedback to the trainees units. The forms are deposited in the training files as one of the bases for the annual appraisal and inspection tour of the Personnel Department.
3. Changes of Duties after Training
After the training the trainees will go back to the original posts generally. Later on according to the individual performance and organizational needs some officers will be promoted in accordance with the « Law on Civil Servants » and « The Appointment of Cadres ». For example, in the two-year period, the post changes of civil servants after being trained in the second training term in Shaanxi Provincial Administration school were as follows: of 69 members in the class, seven people were promoted, (being 10 percent); 14 were transferred to another post at the same level, (accounting for 20 percent); 2 were away from the former working posts, ( 3 percent); 46 remaining in their posts, or 67 percent.
IX. The Source of Funds of Chinese Civil Servant Training
1. Financial allocations
According to the 40th article of Working Regulations of Civil Servant Training, the training funds are supposed to be included in the government’s annual budget at all levels and to be increased with the improvement of the financial situation to ensure the need of civil-servant training. Besides, the governments at all levels are supposed to give a full funding to the administration schools (directly under them to ensure the smooth operation of the training organizations and the successful fulfillment of training tasks.)
2. Charge by rules
The trainees are supposed to be charged in term of the approved standards the accommodation and textbook fees from their sponsoring employment. For example, Gansu Provincial Administration School charges each trainee of director 600 yuan,350 yuan and 120 yuan respectively for their accommodation, training and textbooks in the three- month training ( Spring class: March,1 to May, 31 ). Shaanxi Provincial Administration School charges each trainee of director- leveled civil- servant 910 yuan, 600 yuan and 150 yuan respectively for their one- month study.
X. The Trends in the System of Chinese Civil Servant Training
The training system of civil servant is an important part of the civil servant system and the human recourses development of the civil servant. It plays a significant role in ensuring the quality improvement of the civil servants.
The Chinese civil-servant training system, through decades of consistent development and innovation, has already become a system with its own style, and can basically satisfy and adapt the construction and development of the civil servants, and especially with the foundation of the administration schools, the training forms have become various and more practical, so the training is more effective. But with the further development of the reformation and opening–up, the civil servant system faces new challenges and continuous innovation and reformation are required. According to the research, the future reform will develop from the following four aspects.
1. Being more legalized
The Chinese civil-servant training will be conducted by the Civil Servants Law and the rules of its own, and more related rules and regulations and even laws are supposed to be made to ensure that in the civil- servants training there are rules and regulations and laws to abide by and the trainings are really undertaken by rules to standardize, systematize, specialize and internationalize the Chinese civil-servant training.
2. Further improvement of the training conditions
The Chinese government attaches much importance to the civil-servant training. In order to change the previous conditions— old and simple facilities, crowded classrooms and backward training methods, and to expand the schooling, the Chinese government has made great financial efforts in recent years. Besides, equally great efforts are made to enhance the teachers’ construction. On one hand, rotational training are practiced to the teachers at position to renew their knowledge, improve their quality and explore their potential ability. On the other hand, high level talents are employed to make our teachers more modernized, our training facilities more improved, and our teaching methods more advanced. The digital teaching technology represented by network technology will be publicized in the civil-servant training. In addition, positive efforts are made to motivate the scientific research talents to tackle academic problems and combine a large number of textbooks suitable for the Chinese reality with Chinese style, and gradually change the backwardness of soft ware in civil servant training.
3. Being various in teaching forms
The Chinese civil servant training will be ability-oriented instead of being theory-oriented, more practical in content and more human in methods, stick to the idea that learning should be decided according to practical requirement; learning and application should agree to each other; learning should be applied; stick to the teaching types of interaction, heuristic, self-taught, research and discussion and action. The training content will be more closely connected with the reality of the state, the province, the city and the trainer’s employment position to character the training to be aim- minded, operational, and skill- minded to inspire the trainers’ motivation by changing the previous you-ask-me–to–learn-situation into “I want to learn!”. Theory-oriented talking and allocated training should be avoided.
4. Being open in training
Schooling, including teaching, teachers, textbooks, courses and academic activities. That is to be open nationally and internationally in schooling, co-schooling, overlapping training and also request training, proxy training, mutually sending visiting scholars, hiring teachers and recommending textbooks; to import some outstanding textbooks and the advanced teaching methods and to hire some foreign professors; to organize some academic exchange activities among the administration schools both at home and abroad. For example, the Chinese State Administration School has co-conducted some academic tackles and exchange activities with South Kara, European Union and the Union Association of the Asian and Pacific Area, and got good achievements. More and more this kind of activities will be more widely and deeply conducted , from which more and more high quality academic achievements are to be born. More international standards and examination and evaluation technologies will be gradually employed for the trainers’ examination, evaluation, authentication and appointment so as to open a new page for Chinese civil servant training.
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